Source code for baseplate

import logging
import os
import random

from contextlib import contextmanager
from types import TracebackType
from typing import Any
from typing import Callable
from typing import Dict
from typing import Iterator
from typing import List
from typing import NamedTuple
from typing import Optional
from typing import Tuple
from typing import Type

import gevent.monkey

from pkg_resources import DistributionNotFound
from pkg_resources import get_distribution

from baseplate.lib import config
from baseplate.lib import get_calling_module_name
from baseplate.lib import metrics
from baseplate.lib import UnknownCallerError

    __version__ = get_distribution(__name__).version
except DistributionNotFound:
    # package is not installed
    __version__ = "unknown"

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs]class BaseplateObserver: """Interface for an observer that watches Baseplate."""
[docs] def on_server_span_created(self, context: "RequestContext", server_span: "ServerSpan") -> None: """Do something when a server span is created. :py:class:`Baseplate` calls this when a new request begins. :param context: The :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext` for this request. :param server_span: The span representing this request. """ raise NotImplementedError
_ExcInfo = Tuple[Optional[Type[BaseException]], Optional[BaseException], Optional[TracebackType]]
[docs]class SpanObserver: """Interface for an observer that watches a span."""
[docs] def on_start(self) -> None: """Do something when the observed span is started."""
[docs] def on_set_tag(self, key: str, value: Any) -> None: """Do something when a tag is set on the observed span."""
[docs] def on_incr_tag(self, key: str, delta: float) -> None: """Do something when a tag value is incremented on the observed span."""
[docs] def on_log(self, name: str, payload: Any) -> None: """Do something when a log entry is added to the span."""
[docs] def on_finish(self, exc_info: Optional[_ExcInfo]) -> None: """Do something when the observed span is finished. :param exc_info: If the span ended because of an exception, the exception info. Otherwise, :py:data:`None`. """
[docs] def on_child_span_created(self, span: "Span") -> None: """Do something when a child span is created. :py:class:`SpanObserver` objects call this when a new child span is created. :param span: The new child span. """
[docs]class ServerSpanObserver(SpanObserver): """Interface for an observer that watches the server span."""
[docs]class TraceInfo(NamedTuple): """Trace context for a span. If this request was made at the behest of an upstream service, the upstream service should have passed along trace information. This class is used for collecting the trace context and passing it along to the server span. """ #: The ID of the whole trace. This will be the same for all downstream requests. trace_id: str #: The ID of the parent span, or None if this is the root span. parent_id: Optional[str] #: The ID of the current span. Should be unique within a trace. span_id: str #: True if this trace was selected for sampling. Will be propagated to child spans. sampled: Optional[bool] #: A bit field of extra flags about this trace. flags: Optional[int]
[docs] @classmethod def new(cls) -> "TraceInfo": """Generate IDs for a new initial server span. This span has no parent and has a random ID. It cannot be correlated with any upstream requests. """ trace_id = str(random.getrandbits(64)) return cls(trace_id=trace_id, parent_id=None, span_id=trace_id, sampled=None, flags=None)
[docs] @classmethod def from_upstream( cls, trace_id: Optional[str], parent_id: Optional[str], span_id: Optional[str], sampled: Optional[bool], flags: Optional[int], ) -> "TraceInfo": """Build a TraceInfo from individual headers. :param trace_id: The ID of the trace. :param parent_id: The ID of the parent span. :param span_id: The ID of this span within the tree. :param sampled: Boolean flag to determine request sampling. :param flags: Bit flags for communicating feature flags downstream :raises: :py:exc:`ValueError` if any of the values are inappropriate. """ if trace_id is None: raise ValueError("invalid trace_id") if span_id is None: raise ValueError("invalid span_id") if parent_id is None: raise ValueError("invalid parent_id") if sampled is not None and not isinstance(sampled, bool): raise ValueError("invalid sampled value") if flags is not None: if not 0 <= flags < 2 ** 64: raise ValueError("invalid flags value") return cls(trace_id, parent_id, span_id, sampled, flags)
[docs]class RequestContext: """The request context object. The context object is passed into each request handler by the framework you're using. In some cases (e.g. Pyramid) the request object will also inherit from another base class and carry extra framework-specific information. Clients and configuration added to the context via :py:meth:`~baseplate.Baseplate.configure_context` or :py:meth:`~baseplate.Baseplate.add_to_context` will be available as an attribute on this object. To take advantage of Baseplate's automatic monitoring, any interactions with external services should be done through these clients. """ def __init__( self, context_config: Dict[str, Any], prefix: Optional[str] = None, span: Optional["Span"] = None, wrapped: Optional["RequestContext"] = None, ): self.__context_config = context_config self.__prefix = prefix self.__wrapped = wrapped # the context and span reference eachother (unfortunately) so we can't # construct 'em both with references from the start. however, we can # guarantee that during the valid life of a span, there will be a # reference. so we fake it here and say "trust us". # # this would be much cleaner with a different API but this is where we are. self.span: "Span" = span # type: ignore def __getattr__(self, name: str) -> Any: try: config_item = self.__context_config[name] except KeyError: try: return getattr(self.__wrapped, name) except AttributeError: raise AttributeError( f"{repr(self.__class__.__name__)} object has no attribute {repr(name)}" ) from None if self.__prefix: full_name = f"{self.__prefix}.{name}" else: full_name = name if isinstance(config_item, dict): obj = RequestContext(context_config=config_item, prefix=full_name, span=self.span) elif hasattr(config_item, "make_object_for_context"): obj = config_item.make_object_for_context(full_name, self.span) else: obj = config_item setattr(self, name, obj) return obj # this is just here for type checking # pylint: disable=useless-super-delegation def __setattr__(self, name: str, value: Any) -> None: super().__setattr__(name, value) def clone(self) -> "RequestContext": return RequestContext( context_config=self.__context_config, prefix=self.__prefix, span=self.span, wrapped=self, )
class ReusedContextObjectError(Exception): def __init__(self) -> None: super().__init__("Context objects cannot be re-used. See")
[docs]class Baseplate: """The core of the Baseplate framework. This class coordinates monitoring and tracing of service calls made to and from this service. See :py:mod:`baseplate.frameworks` for how to integrate it with the application framework you are using. """
[docs] def __init__(self, app_config: Optional[config.RawConfig] = None) -> None: """Initialize the core observability framework. :param app_config: The raw configuration dictionary for your application as supplied by :program:`baseplate-serve` or :program:`baseplate-script`. In addition to allowing framework-level configuration (described next), if this is supplied you do not need to pass the configuration again when calling :py:meth:`configure_observers` or :py:meth:`configure_context`. Baseplate services can identify themselves to downstream services in requests. The name a service identifies as defaults to the Python module the :py:class:`~baseplate.Baseplate` object is instantiated in. To override the default, make sure you are passing in an `app_config` and configure the name in your INI file: .. code-block:: ini [app:main] baseplate.service_name = foo_service ... """ self.observers: List[BaseplateObserver] = [] self._metrics_client: Optional[metrics.Client] = None self._context_config: Dict[str, Any] = {} self._app_config = app_config or {} self.service_name = self._app_config.get("baseplate.service_name") if not self.service_name: try: self.service_name = get_calling_module_name() except UnknownCallerError: # this happens e.g. when instantiating Baseplate() in a shell pass
[docs] def register(self, observer: BaseplateObserver) -> None: """Register an observer. :param observer: An observer. """ self.observers.append(observer)
# pylint: disable=cyclic-import
[docs] def configure_observers(self) -> None: """Configure diagnostics observers based on application configuration. This installs all the currently supported observers that have settings in the configuration file. See :py:mod:`baseplate.observers` for the configuration settings available for each observer. """ skipped = [] from baseplate.observers.logging import LoggingBaseplateObserver self.register(LoggingBaseplateObserver()) if gevent.monkey.is_module_patched("socket"): from baseplate.observers.timeout import TimeoutBaseplateObserver timeout_observer = TimeoutBaseplateObserver.from_config(self._app_config) self.register(timeout_observer) else: skipped.append("timeout") if "metrics.tagging" in self._app_config: if "metrics.namespace" in self._app_config: raise ValueError("metrics.namespace not allowed with metrics.tagging") from baseplate.lib.metrics import metrics_client_from_config from baseplate.observers.metrics_tagged import TaggedMetricsBaseplateObserver self._metrics_client = metrics_client_from_config(self._app_config) self.register( TaggedMetricsBaseplateObserver.from_config_and_client( self._app_config, self._metrics_client ) ) elif "metrics.namespace" in self._app_config: from baseplate.lib.metrics import metrics_client_from_config from baseplate.observers.metrics import MetricsBaseplateObserver self._metrics_client = metrics_client_from_config(self._app_config) self.register( MetricsBaseplateObserver.from_config_and_client( self._app_config, self._metrics_client ) ) else: skipped.append("metrics") if "tracing.service_name" in self._app_config: from baseplate.observers.tracing import tracing_client_from_config from baseplate.observers.tracing import TraceBaseplateObserver tracing_client = tracing_client_from_config(self._app_config) self.register(TraceBaseplateObserver(tracing_client)) else: skipped.append("tracing") if "sentry.dsn" in self._app_config or "SENTRY_DSN" in os.environ: from baseplate.observers.sentry import init_sentry_client_from_config from baseplate.observers.sentry import SentryBaseplateObserver from baseplate.observers.sentry import _SentryUnhandledErrorReporter init_sentry_client_from_config(self._app_config) _SentryUnhandledErrorReporter.install() self.register(SentryBaseplateObserver()) else: skipped.append("sentry") if skipped: logger.debug( "The following observers are unconfigured and won't run: %s", ", ".join(skipped) )
[docs] def configure_context(self, context_spec: Dict[str, Any]) -> None: """Add a number of objects to each request's context object. Configure and attach multiple clients to the :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext` in one place. This takes a full configuration spec like :py:func:`baseplate.lib.config.parse_config` and will attach the specified structure onto the context object each request. For example, a configuration like:: baseplate = Baseplate(app_config) baseplate.configure_context({ "cfg": { "doggo_is_good": config.Boolean, }, "cache": MemcachedClient(), "cassandra": { "foo": CassandraClient("foo_keyspace"), "bar": CassandraClient("bar_keyspace"), }, }) would build a context object that could be used like:: assert context.cfg.doggo_is_good == True context.cache.get("example") :param app_config: The raw stringy configuration dictionary. :param context_spec: A specification of what the configuration should look like. """ cfg = config.parse_config(self._app_config, context_spec) self._context_config.update(cfg)
[docs] def add_to_context(self, name: str, attribute_config: Any) -> None: """Add an attribute or a structure of attributes to each request's context object. The given attribute config object can be one of the following: * An arbitrary object to be added to the :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext`. * A factory with a method named ``make_object_for_context``. On each request, the factory will be asked to create an appropriate object to attach to the :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext`. * A dict containing arbitrary objects, factories, or other dicts. In this case, a nested object will be added to the context. Each item of the dict will be processed using the same rules to become an attribute of the nested object. :param name: The attribute on the context object to attach the created object to. This may also be used for metric/tracing purposes so it should be descriptive. :param attribute_config: A configuration object. """ self._context_config[name] = attribute_config
[docs] def make_context_object(self) -> RequestContext: """Make a context object for the request.""" return RequestContext(self._context_config)
[docs] def make_server_span( self, context: RequestContext, name: str, trace_info: Optional[TraceInfo] = None ) -> "ServerSpan": """Return a server span representing the request we are handling. In a server, a server span represents the time spent on a single incoming request. Any calls made to downstream services will be new child spans of the server span, and the server span will in turn be the child span of whatever upstream request it is part of, if any. :param context: The :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext` for this request. :param name: A name to identify the type of this request, e.g. a route or RPC method name. :param trace_info: The trace context of this request as passed in from upstream. If :py:data:`None`, a new trace context will be generated. """ assert isinstance(context, RequestContext) if context.span is not None: raise ReusedContextObjectError if trace_info is None: trace_info = server_span = ServerSpan( trace_info.trace_id, trace_info.parent_id, trace_info.span_id, trace_info.sampled, trace_info.flags, name, context, baseplate=self, ) context.span = server_span for observer in self.observers: observer.on_server_span_created(context, server_span) return server_span
[docs] @contextmanager def server_context(self, name: str) -> Iterator[RequestContext]: """Create a server span and return a context manager for its lifecycle. This is a convenience wrapper around a common pattern seen outside of servers handling requests. For example, simple cron jobs or one-off scripts might want to create a temporary span and access the context object. Instead of calling :py:meth:`~baseplate.Baseplate.make_context_object` followed by :py:meth:`~baseplate.Baseplate.make_server_span` manually, this method bundles it all up for you:: with baseplate.server_context("foo") as context: .. note:: This should not be used within an existing span context (such as during request processing) as it creates a new span unrelated to any other ones. """ context = self.make_context_object() with self.make_server_span(context, name): yield context
def get_runtime_metric_reporters(self) -> Dict[str, Callable[[Any], None]]: specs: List[Tuple[Optional[str], Dict[str, Any]]] = [(None, self._context_config)] result = {} while specs: prefix, spec = specs.pop(0) for name, value in spec.items(): if prefix: full_name = f"{prefix}.{name}" else: full_name = name if isinstance(value, dict): specs.append((full_name, value)) elif hasattr(value, "report_runtime_metrics"): result[full_name] = value.report_runtime_metrics return result
[docs]class Span: """A span represents a single RPC within a system.""" def __init__( self, trace_id: str, parent_id: Optional[str], span_id: str, sampled: Optional[bool], flags: Optional[int], name: str, context: RequestContext, baseplate: Optional[Baseplate] = None, ): self.trace_id = trace_id self.parent_id = parent_id = span_id self.sampled = sampled self.flags = flags = name self.context = context self.baseplate = baseplate self.component_name: Optional[str] = None self.observers: List[SpanObserver] = []
[docs] def register(self, observer: SpanObserver) -> None: """Register an observer to receive events from this span.""" self.observers.append(observer)
[docs] def start(self) -> None: """Record the start of the span. This notifies any observers that the span has started, which indicates that timers etc. should start ticking. Spans also support the `context manager protocol`_, for use with Python's ``with`` statement. When the context is entered, the span calls :py:meth:`start` and when the context is exited it automatically calls :py:meth:`finish`. .. _context manager protocol: """ for observer in self.observers: observer.on_start()
[docs] def set_tag(self, key: str, value: Any) -> None: """Set a tag on the span. Tags are arbitrary key/value pairs that add context and meaning to the span, such as a hostname or query string. Observers may interpret or ignore tags as they desire. :param key: The name of the tag. :param value: The value of the tag. """ for observer in self.observers: observer.on_set_tag(key, value)
[docs] def incr_tag(self, key: str, delta: float = 1) -> None: """Increment a tag value on the span. This is useful to count instances of an event in your application. In addition to showing up as a tag on the span, the value may also be aggregated separately as an independent counter. :param key: The name of the tag. :param value: The amount to increment the value. Defaults to 1. """ for observer in self.observers: observer.on_incr_tag(key, delta)
[docs] def log(self, name: str, payload: Optional[Any] = None) -> None: """Add a log entry to the span. Log entries are timestamped events recording notable moments in the lifetime of a span. :param name: The name of the log entry. This should be a stable identifier that can apply to multiple span instances. :param payload: Optional log entry payload. This can be arbitrary data. """ for observer in self.observers: observer.on_log(name, payload)
[docs] def finish(self, exc_info: Optional[_ExcInfo] = None) -> None: """Record the end of the span. :param exc_info: If the span ended because of an exception, this is the exception information. The default is :py:data:`None` which indicates normal exit. """ for observer in self.observers: observer.on_finish(exc_info) # clean up reference cycles self.context = None # type: ignore self.observers.clear()
def __enter__(self) -> "Span": self.start() return self def __exit__( self, exc_type: Optional[Type[BaseException]], value: Optional[BaseException], traceback: Optional[TracebackType], ) -> None: if exc_type is not None: self.finish(exc_info=(exc_type, value, traceback)) else: self.finish()
[docs] def make_child( self, name: str, local: bool = False, component_name: Optional[str] = None ) -> "Span": """Return a child Span whose parent is this Span.""" raise NotImplementedError
class ParentSpanAlreadyFinishedError(Exception): def __init__(self) -> None: super().__init__( "Cannot make child span of parent that already finished. See" ) class LocalSpan(Span): def make_child( self, name: str, local: bool = False, component_name: Optional[str] = None ) -> "Span": """Return a child Span whose parent is this Span. The child span can either be a local span representing an in-request operation or a span representing an outbound service call. In a server, a local span represents the time spent within a local component performing an operation or set of operations. The local component is some grouping of business logic, which is then split up into operations which could each be wrapped in local spans. :param name: Name to identify the operation this span is recording. :param local: Make this span a LocalSpan if True, otherwise make this span a base Span. :param component_name: Name to identify local component this span is recording in if it is a local span. """ if not self.context: raise ParentSpanAlreadyFinishedError span_id = str(random.getrandbits(64)) context_copy = self.context.clone() span: Span if local: span = LocalSpan( self.trace_id,, span_id, self.sampled, self.flags, name, context_copy, self.baseplate, ) span.component_name = component_name else: span = Span( self.trace_id,, span_id, self.sampled, self.flags, name, context_copy, self.baseplate, ) context_copy.span = span for observer in self.observers: observer.on_child_span_created(span) return span
[docs]class ServerSpan(LocalSpan): """A server span represents a request this server is handling. The server span is available on the :py:class:`~baseplate.RequestContext` during requests as the ``span`` attribute. """
__all__ = ["Baseplate"]